Cleaning faecal-trays is not labour friendly. In a poultry house, the overall heat generated is the sum of heat generated by the birds, the surrounding environment and biodegradation of fecal material [58, 59, 60]. These activities may include transfer of chicken, feeding, de-pecking, waste management, vaccination, and so on. However, the required air velocity is dependent on the class of birds in question. This means higher humidity can improve the performance of the birds at lower temperature. The incidence of blood spots in egg is more. It is important we understand the effect of internal climatic conditions of the poultry house on the birds, how the birds respond to them, and their implications on heat management for poultry production. Also, Air velocity plays an important role in convectional cooling and the regulation of air quality [2, 18]. Floor space requirement for poultry - layers, Floor space requirement for poultry – broilers, Expert System on Poultry, ICAR-TANUVAS-TNAU, Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY). These are feed, water, fresh air, light, darkness, proper thermal environment, protection (from the elements, predators, injury and theft) and proper space. In cases where there is land constraints, air deflectors can be installed houses with large cross-sectional area to reduce the cross sectional area within the poultry house. In the absence of evaporative cooling pads, it is recommended that the inlet area should be at least 10% greater than the cross sectional area of the house. The value of To is the hottest external temperature that is excepted of the external environment. Keep birds free of parasites. However, panting can lead to dehydration and respiratory alkalosis because of inadequate water supply and drop in blood pH due to excessive ejection of carbon dioxide [21]. ing that the poultry house is maintained with appropriate brood-ing, rearing, growing and laying conditions; and ensuring that recommended vaccinations are given and appropriate feeding programmes are used. However, the curtain may be transparent or of varying colors to aid its use in managing intermittent lighting scheme [2, 15, 63]. Birds are not having access to the unidentified growth factors in deep-litter system. However, the exhaust fan determines how much air enters the house. feed, water shade, room , for exercise and saftey. 13. During hot weather, poultry birds maintain thermo-neutral temperature by losing heat mainly through conduction, convection, radiation and evaporative cooling [2, 20, 21]. In the quest to further understand the effect of air velocity on chicken, [23], factored the ages of chicken within the temperature range 25–30°C with varying air velocity. It is believed that understanding heat stress in birds by paying detail attention to the sources of heat generation in a poultry house can help manage the heat stress situation in this region. Heat gain by the sidewall can be reduced to about 30% by roof overhang shading if properly applied at a roof slope of 45° [60]. Doors can be placed at interval of 15–30 m to make for easy circulation and service delivery [2]. In addition, the problem of uneven air exchange rate and temperature within the building is eradicated. This type of house provides sufficient ventilation in tropical countries. However, when calculating heat gain for roof in a house with attic space, the value To it is assumed to be 55°C whereas the To value for ceilings with insulation directly below the roof is assumed to be 65°C [2]. Hence, circulation fans are used to boost the air speed to ensure air movement is sufficient in the building [2]. Nipple drinkers to provide cleaner water, reduce water spillage and labour for drinker cleaning has replaced the conventional open water system. Fresh litter materials spread on the floor. Factors such as wind speed, wind direction and topography are major determinants for consideration in defining the optimal house spacing. Recommended air velocities in tunnel-ventilated houses. can be applied easily and accurately. 5. It is recommended that inlet opening on the sidewall should be installed as close as possible to the end wall. Generally, circulation fans generate air velocity of 0.5 m/s or more and cover an area 15 times its horizontal diameter by five times its vertical diameter [2]. where desired air velocity, m/s; tunnel fan capacity, m3/h; cross section area, m2. As the sun rises, the house is heated evenly and chickens do not compete for heat as a uniform environment is created. Heat Stress is a general problem in the poultry industry, especially in the production of chicken meat and egg. Feeders and waterers are attached to cages from outside except nipple waterers, for which pipeline is installed through or above cages. The sheds should be so located that the fresh air first passes through the brooder shed, followed by grower and layer sheds. Egg eating is largely prevented and most clean egg productior. Consequently, for optimum production for chicken a concentration level of 25 ppm and not more than 2500 ppm for ammonia and carbon dioxide was recommended [18, 39]. For proper ventilation control, it is required that the house be highly insulated and tightly constructed [2]. Poultry birds can be raised in both free range and indoor production systems. Faults in ventilation can have more serious consequences than in the cage system. Poultry housing 1. The pressure difference between the internal and external environment determines the entry speed of fresh air [2]. Sick and unproductive birds can be easily identified and eliminated. *Address all correspondence to: ayodeji.oloyo@federalpolyilaro.edu.ng. Consequently, make cooling difficult and in severe cases this leads to stampede and even death [2]. Ketelaars [16] recommended a temperature of 30–32°C at chicken height for day old chicks. Environmental temperature higher than 40°C would require a minimum R-value of 2.25 m2 C/W [2]. In order to reduce the exposure of sidewall to direct to direct sun radiation the poultry house should be orientated in the east-west direction [2, 60]. The ventilation method is greatly recommended for rearing laying hen [2]. It may be due to Ca and P deficiency but the exact reason is not known). Rearing of poultry by letting them loose on ground (field) called as range in limited area(fenced) is known as free range system. In other reviews done by Holik [15], it was concluded that birds are comfortable when environmental temperature is within the range of 18–24°C. The compound annual growth rate of poultry protein between 2015 and 2025 is estimated to be +2.4% [1]. This problem is further compounded by the high body heat generated by genetically improved laying birds with increased metabolic activity resulting from the high rate of egg production [12, 13, 14, 15]. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. [23], conducted a study that subjected 3 weeks old male broilers in a controlled environment for 4 weeks to a cyclic temperature of 25–30–25°C at varying wind speed of still air (<0.25 m/s), 2 m/s and 3 m/s. The corrugated wire mesh allows easy airflow within and outside the building, while the adjustable curtain is used to control the flow and air velocity. During panting, evaporative cooling occurs when water evaporates from the respiratory system of the bird. Different types of housing for poultry Deep litter. The droppings are either collected in trays underneath cages or on belts or on the floor or deep pit under cages, depending on type of cages. ADRA Mongolia. CHICKENS: housing, feeding, breeding. Normally, air inlets should be designed to direct air towards the ceiling at cooler time while another should be directed towards the floor during the hot periods of the year [2]. The fans are located at end-walls of the building and the tunnel inlet at the center of the house. The total height of the house is 20-25 feet and the width is 30-33 feet. However, a distance not less than twice the diameter of the fan should be between the exhaust fans and the air inlet pipes. May et al. The birds are kept on suitable litter material of about 3” to 5” depth. The planting of tall trees along the sidewalls can provide a form of canopy to shade the sidewalls from exposure to direct or reflective solar radiation during the hot periods of the day. Protection from internal parasites and soil borne illnesses. Consequently, it was recommended that a minimum of 60% of the tunnel fan capacity should be controlled by the traditional inlet system before upgrading to tunnel ventilation for easy switch during cooler weathers [2]. PDF | On Dec 23, 2017, Pragya Bhadauria published Different Types of Poultry Housing System for Tropical Climate | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Poultry need accurate management and environment for better production and welfare. Poultry HousingPoultry Housing 2. On the other hand, Ti is best assumed as 27°C to ensure comfort for birds. The effectiveness of sensible heat lost is a function of the temperature difference between the bird and its environment.