In Lithuania and Poland, a famous vodka containing honey is called krupnik. After Sweden joined the European Union in 1995, the regulations were changed so that privately owned companies could produce Vodka. Vodka can be used in baking as a substitute for water: pie crusts can be made flakier with vodka. [30], Vodka has become popular among young people, with a flourishing black market. Today, some popular Russian vodka producers or brands are (amongst others) Stolichnaya and Russian Standard. [10] At the time, wódka referred to medicines and cosmetic products, while the beverage was called gorzałka (from the Old Polish gorzeć meaning "to burn"), which is also the source of Ukrainian horilka (горілка). Thus, this beverage was closely associated with Moscow. [39], This pure grain alcohol, also known as rectified spirit, neutral spirit, or ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin is also available directly to consumers in some areas, as products such as Everclear, Polmos spirits rektyfikowany, and others. The beverage was usually low-proof, and the distillation process had to be repeated several times (a three-stage distillation process was common). Vodka is traditionally drunk "neat" (not mixed with water, ice, or other mixers), and it is often served freezer chilled in the vodka belt of Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Lithuania, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, and Ukraine. Pomenovanie pochádza zo slovanského slova pre vodu.. Konzumuje sa buď čistá (spravidla chladená) alebo v koktailoch zmiešaná s inými nápojmi (alkoholickými či nealkoholickými). [4][39][40], A study conducted on NPR's Planet Money podcast revealed negligible differences in taste between various brands of vodka, leading to speculation as to how much branding contributes to the concept of "super-premium vodkas".[41]. Vyrába sa od 15. storočia.. Obsahuje zvyčajne 35 – 70 % alkoholu (najčastejšie 40 %). Some filed for bankruptcy, but many were privatized, leading to the creation of various new brands.[20]. The name vodka is a diminutive form of the Slavic word voda (water), interpreted as little water: root вод- (vod-) [water] + -к- (-k-) (diminutive suffix, among other functions) + -a (ending of feminine gender). According to a legend, around 1430, a monk named Isidore from Chudov Monastery inside the Moscow Kremlin made a recipe of the first Russian vodka. Traditionally it is made by distilling the liquid from cereal grains that have been fermented, with potatoes arising as a substitute in more recent times, and some modern brands using fruits, honey or maple sap as the base. People in the area of vodka's probable origin have names for vodka with roots meaning "to burn": Polish: gorzała; Ukrainian: горілка, romanized: horílka; Belarusian: гарэлка, romanized: harelka; Lithuanian: degtinė; Samogitian: degtėnė is also in use, colloquially and in proverbs[15]); Latvian: degvīns; Finnish: paloviina. Since the 1890s, standard vodkas have been 40% alcohol by volume (ABV) (80 U.S. [46] In March 2007 in a documentary, BBC News UK sought to find the cause of severe jaundice among imbibers of a "bathtub" vodka in Russia. In some locations, grape wine may have been so expensive that it was a drink only for aristocrats. [34][35], In the United States, many vodkas are made from 95% pure grain alcohol produced in large quantities by agricultural-industrial giants Archer Daniels Midland, Grain Processing Corporation,[36] and Midwest Grain Products (MGP). In 1863, the government monopoly on vodka production was repealed, causing prices to plummet and making vodka available even to low-income citizens. In 1925, the production of clear vodkas was made a Polish government monopoly. Burning wine was usually diluted with water to 24% ABV or less before drinking. [20], Though there was a substantial vodka cottage industry in Poland back to the 16th century, the end of the 18th century marked the start of real industrial production of vodka in Poland (Kresy, the eastern part of Poland was controlled by the Russian empire at that time). ©2018 Immortal Brands LLC, Dallas, TX. Viru Valge comes in three degrees of alcohol content: 38%, 40% and 80%. Since the year 2000, due to evolving consumer tastes and regulatory changes, several 'artisanal vodka' or even 'ultra premium vodka' brands have appeared. Up until the 1950s, vodka was not used as a designation for Swedish distilled beverages, which were instead called brännvin ("burn-wine"), the word having the same etymology as the Dutch Brandewijn, which is the base for the word brandy. Vodka (poljsko wódka, rusko водка, ukrajinsko horilka) je praviloma brezbarvna žgana pijača z minimalno 37,5 % alkohola.Ima skoraj popolnoma nevtralen okus, je brez arom in fermentiranih snovi. This privilege was a source of substantial profits. "[12] William Tooke in 1799 glossed vodka as "rectified corn-spirits",[13] using the traditional English sense of the word "corn" to refer to any grain, not just maize. Among grain vodkas, rye and wheat vodkas are generally considered superior. 'Potential for alcohol policy to decrease the mortality crisis in Russia', Evaluation & the Health Professions, vol. Les vodkas à base de céréales sont surtout issues de Russie, de Biélorussie et d'Ukraine ; celles à base de céréales et de pommes de terre, surtout de Russie, et enfin celles à base de pommes de terre sont surtout issues de Biélorussie, de … This regulation entered into force in 2008. [20], After World War II, all vodka distilleries were taken over by Poland's Marxist–Leninist government. It is also used in cocktails and mixed drinks, such as the vodka martini, Cosmopolitan, vodka tonic, screwdriver, greyhound, Black or White Russian, Moscow mule, Bloody Mary, and Caesar. These components of the distillate contain flavor compounds such as ethyl acetate and ethyl lactate (heads) as well as the fusel oils (tails) that impact the usually desired clean taste of vodka. [1][2] It is composed primarily of water and ethanol, but sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings. Vodka je pôvodom ruský alkoholický nápoj. The liquid obtained by distillation of grape must was thought to be a concentrate and a "spirit" of wine (spiritus vini in Latin), whence came to the name of this substance in many European languages (like English spirit, or Russian спирт, spirt). 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